Lenses there are gravitational and gaseous

on 12 May 2017.


Mirage over a hot road – a usual phenomenon. Mirages in the deserts, oases, lakes, distant cities may occur without polished mirrors and lenses. Consequently, jet and air layers without clear boundaries are a great influence on the rays of light. The sharper the difference of properties, the better the gas lens or mirror. It is remarkable that in the desert you can see the objects located hundreds of kilometers away from the observer. Therefore, the formation of waveguides with total internal reflection. And the quirkiness of such fibers allows you to see objects and inverted and combined with other images.

Even homogeneous in the chemical composition of the gas may be the lens if inside there are areas with different temperatures.

The refracted ray of light upon entering a medium with a different velocity of propagation is inevitable. No matter what the boundaries of these environments are blurred, fuzzy. When the lens of polished glass is placed in the air, everything is so beautiful and geometrically understandable, explicable. It is extremely difficult to take into account the refraction at the blurring of boundaries. Not a classic case of, dull, vague.

Astronomical observations in terrestrial conditions is difficult not only because of our atmosphere, but because the atmosphere is turbulent: the density fluctuations, the jet stream, winds, chemical inhomogeneity, the temperature difference makes the picture alive, trembling.

If you produce through a telescope shooting fast camera distant object, and then carefully examine the image in a slow rhythm, we should expect that there will be discovered such phenomena as lensing, change colors, change the position of an object, even a split.

In addition to gravitational lenses in the path of light waves can be other lenses. It is sufficient to recognize that in some place of the space the light is refracted from other causes, for example, from gas or dust clouds, then removed the question of it gravitational refraction.

It should be observed the decomposition of light into a spectrum. If there is dispersion (the difference in propagation speed for different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation), it is inevitable, and the decomposition of the spectrum. As soon as you accept that interstellar space is not empty, it contains particles and fields, and inevitably the recognition of the dispersion. Expansion of the range will depend on the shape of the cloud (region): we are not surprised that a window can't see the spectrum, and in a glass prism are seeing it.

The polarization of the light will occur if the path will meet the sources of electric or magnetic fields, if the medium through which light travels, ordered these fields. Even the negligible number of particles, which is in interstellar space, while flying several light-years is a serious influencing factor: the interstellar field oriented particles.

As known from geometrical optics, the refractive index is the ratio of the speed of light in the first medium (where the light falls) to the second (which includes the beam). Therefore, depending on the location of the light source can change the picture output. That is, not only the shape of the gas cloud will affect the outcome, but the presence of the radiation source in the cloud or behind the cloud.

It is expected that such will be discovered astronomical objects, the distance from which their sizes are in contradiction with results obtained in other ways. If, for example, the cloud is a scattering lens, the object will appear farther than it really is.

Than udalenie from us an object is, the greater the probability that the rays pass on their way through a cosmic lens, the more oddities you can find.

For the rays of some objects may complete (perhaps partial) reflection from the outer clouds. The mirror, similar in all respects objects in the Universe can be used to determine the location of the "reflectors".

Many consider the gravitational lens effect, the main proof of the existence of dark matter.

Acknowledging (or denying) the fact (or possibility) gas lens we can progress in understanding the picture of the universe.