Magnetodynamic change in strength

on 05 September 2012.

  On the theoretical possibility of change of mechanical stress by using a magnetic field
   The problem of reducing mechanical stress in a variety of devices is very serious. Increase the efficiency of the devices requires increasing the mechanical strength of these devices. And downsizing entailing enormous savings in material, requires the same. And especially hard this question is for settings such as turbines, electric motors, electric generators, gyroscopic energy storage - that is, for those devices that support the power of any developed country.
      Therefore, the problem is to discuss it. Any finding in this way promises so much that needs rigorous analysis of any hypothesis or development. For the analysis, of course, you must have some real suggestions. The author has the courage to make such an offer.
      Forces that arise when moving conductor in a magnetic field, can improve their strength or weaken the structure.


     Consider a mechanical rotating system.
 Take the mass of the sample M = 10 kg. Let this be a disc and let the radius of the disk is R = 0.2 m speed is take a total of 50 per second (W = 314 rad / s).
 Mechanical forces (assuming even that the entire mass is concentrated at the maximum radius of the ring!))

F=МRW2=10х0,2х3142=197000 Н=2х105 N

   Mechanical forces arising from the rotation, always try to break the drive.
 Meanwhile, there are forces that arise when the disk rotation in the magnetic field, which can both cement the disc and try to break it.
      The author believes that this claim is justified.
 Known phenomenon of magnetostriction: when applied to some samples of the magnetic field, they change their geometric dimensions.
 To estimate the resulting forces, assume that a change in the geometric dimensions (strain) was due to external forces (for example, through the press)..


где S- cross-sectional area of the sample,,

Е- Young's modulus,

(L2-L1)/L1 - Elongation,

F- the force required for a given strain.

When magnetostriction samples practically do not change their size. Therefore, the sample is accompanied by a shortening of its expansion, and, conversely, it is accompanied by elongation of the sample thinning.
 As a magnetostrictive material of interest to an alloy of iron with cobalt (50-50). Elongation at field strengths 5х104 А/м is 65х10-6.Young's modulus of the order 2х1011Н/м2.For the sample taken by the author - a disc weighing 10 kg and a radius of 0.2 m at a density of metal 7 880 кг/м3 thickness is 1 cm, and the lateral surface area 1,26х10-2м2. Тогда

F=1,26х10-2х2х1011х65х10-6=163 800 N

That is magnetostrictive forces are almost equal mechanical tensile stress (200,000 N) at a given speed and a given magnetic field (which is the application of superconducting magnetic systems can be increased many times.)
       Magnetostriction but not the only effect that occurs when you place the disc in a rotating magnetic field.

    Known and widely used so-called unipolar generator.
 In the simplest form of unipolar generator can be a disk of a conductive material, rotating with an external drive in the field of the permanent magnet. On a conductor moving in a magnetic field is known, there is a potential difference. The disc can be seen as a collection of a large number of conductors moving in a magnetic field. Between the axis and the periphery of the disc there is a difference of potentials.
 This potential difference is proportional to the velocity of the conductor (V) (in our case, the linear speed), the length of the conductor (L) and the magnetic field (B).


Since the achievable rate is limited durability of materials, and the magnitude of the magnetic field does not exceed, as a rule, 1-2 Tesla, the potential difference is small, it is 1-10 volts.
       Depending on the field direction and the direction of rotation of the disk electrons are displaced to the periphery or to the axis of the disk. Ions are "frozen" in the structure of the metal and can not move, at least, the forces that occur when moving the disk in a magnetic field, can not move them..

   Moving charges will occur as long as the electric force does not offset the Lorentz force.
Suppose electrons were pushed to the periphery of the disc. Fly out of it, they can not, because there is an energy barrier, called the work function. Field emission of electrons from the surface of the conductor comes with such a large capacity, which obviously can not be achieved in the unipolar machines. Therefore, they will accumulate in the periphery.
      But because the Lorentz force, ie the force acting on a moving charge due to the magnetic field acting on each charge in the conductor, and these charges in only one gram mole of 6.02 *1023 units for monovalent compounds. Therefore, this force is a decent size so that it is calculated for any particular device.
      Thus, the data for the calculation.
Take the mass of the sample M = 10 kg. Let this be a disk of iron (steel) having a molecular weight m = 56g = 0.056 kg. (M / m = 178).
Let the radius of the disk is R = 0,2 m and let the frequency of turnover of only 50 r / s (W = 314 rad / s). Let us take two valence. The magnetic field of 1 T, let it be. The question is: how big you can get the total force acting on all the charges?


где Q=2х6,023х1023х1,6х10-19хМ/m

=2х6,023х1023х1,6х10-19х178=34 170 000 C

This charge of all electrons in the disc

 V = RW / 2 - average linear velocity. For a disk rotating in a magnetic field, we take it to be equal to half the maximum, because the linear velocity on the axis is zero.

F=2х6,02х1023х1,6х10-19х0,2х314/2х10/0,056=1,08х109 N.

This force is four orders of magnitude greater than the centrifugal force.
      Offset charges (ie current) occurs only at the time of acceleration. Then, the charge transfer is terminated. Lorentz force acting on moving charges (ie, electrons and ions of the conductor), offset charges arising between electrical forces.
The motion of a linear conductor perpendicular to magnetic field lines leads to a tremendous effort. The direction of the Lorentz forces to oppositely charged particles of the conductor (electrons and ions) is opposite, and this leads to a stretching of the conductor. Therefore, in some degree of mechanical effort should be fixed at all, without exception, solid bodies moving in a magnetic field (or are in an alternating magnetic field.) That is, in my opinion, any conducting body moving in a magnetic field changes its geometric dimensions. Therefore, the magneto must be common to all, without exception, the conductive bodies moving in a magnetic field. Relative to body at rest in a magnetic field, this can be said.

     In the case of a disk rotating in a magnetic field, there is asymmetry. Suppose we have chosen a direction of rotation of the disk, in which the electrons are pushed to the periphery, and the ions to the axis. On the periphery represents negative excess charge on the axis exposed positive ion charge. When charge separation between an electric interaction. But the centrifugal forces causing tension disk is affected by the ions! Indeed, the electron mass in about two thousand times smaller than the mass of the ion. Displacement of electrons can not change the crystal lattice. Therefore, it must be made to seek the ions to the center (do not move, namely to strive), compensating for these centrifugal forces. If all sides disk ions receive this extra power, then inevitably be followed by a compression of the disc to the center.
      An ion rotating in the drive, a valid set of forces. First, it is the centrifugal force. Secondly, it is the Lorentz force that tends to shift the ion to the axis. Third, is the strength of the electric ion interaction with the electron..

To express their thoughts clearly, the author has to resort to an analogy to the comparison with a rather simple and straightforward experience. Suppose we have a spring at the ends of which are fixed weights of different masses. These goods are applied the same force. Spring is on the rotating disk, and force (not centrifugal), acting on a heavy load, it shifts to the axis, and the force acting on a light load, it shifts to the periphery. With enough tension spring elastic forces fully compensate the external forces. But the equality of all the interacting forces does not mean the lack of them! To compensate for the external forces applied to the goods needed to stretch the spring, and despite the centrifugal forces of a heavy load has shifted to the axis! If these springs and heavy very much (very, very much), and if it is the heavy loads the form and structure of the material, then the conclusion is that no matter how far flown light loads (yes though and do overboard), they nor in any way will determine the overall behavior of the material under the influence of external forces.
      Suppose, indeed, that some of the electrons left the disk, that is, it has gained a positive charge. We ask the question: How big should be the charge to the motion in the magnetic field completely compensate the centrifugal force acting on the ions.

     Thus, the centrifugal force in this case is 2х105 N.

Lorentz force


 Q=6369 C

This is a very large charge ... If it is accumulating. And if you do not know the number of electrons in one mole of monovalent matter of 10 to 23 degrees, and the current charge is passed through a conductor in 1 second.
 If you really give electrons freedom of movement, to allow them to leave the disk and back out of the magnetic field, that is, allow the current to flow, then the unipolar generator problem is completely solvable. These generators can provide a current of tens and hundreds of thousands of amperes, that is flowing through a conductor in a second charge can be and 100000 Pendant.
      Then, the force acting on the electrons, drive them to the external circuit and will drive around (drive - external circuit - axle - drive), and the force acting on the ions podozhmet them to the axis, thus hardened design. Not only that, considering the disk as a set of parallel current-carrying conductors, one can conclude that there will be another force: the force of interaction of currents. This power will also be a reinforcing drive to pull it.

If reinforcement is the main problem, then we can draw energy to transport power from the prime mover, but you can use an external power source, such as a similar homopolar generator. Supplying current to the generator of the working drive another generator, it is possible not only to ensure the strengthening of the electrodynamic structure, but also to control speed, transfer working drive a generator or motor mode, depending on the magnitude and direction of the supply current.
 By talking about the disc, yet should consider any specific design.

Most interesting are the gyros, mechanical energy storage, the motor. Disc rotating in a magnetic field can be achieved as a significant hardening of it (if the ions are force to the axis) or a significant weakening of strength (if the ions tend to perifirii). For metal cutting is necessary to weaken, reducing the strength. To store energy and to increase the inertia of the gyroscopes and flywheels need strengthening..

.Electrodynamic hardening will increase the speed of rotation, and this in turn will reduce the size of the installation at the same power or increase the power under the previous size.
 Creation of a magnetic field, or perhaps due to the permanent magnets, or for the account of the current flow through the coil of the conventional wire or by using a superconducting system. As disadvantages and advantages of methods known. The magnetic field of the permanent magnet is weak. When deficiencies are considered normal conductor heat and consume more power, dignity - simplicity and elaboration of structures. When superconductors disadvantages are the complexity and high cost of the initial installation, the advantages - low power consumption and the ability to create strong fields. If the gain in output allows you to enlarge the loss, preference, obviously, should be given the normal conductor. If the dimensions of the plant requires the least, and the maximum capacity, it will provide only superconductors.

So, now you can create a rotating system in which the centrifugal forces are fully compensated magnetostrictive forces.
Effect of the magnetic field on a moving conductor must be accompanied by the emergence of mechanical force in excess centrifugal force. This statement is to be verified. Should I? Without exception, all the conductors in varying degrees, are magnetostrictive. If two conductors with parallel currents attract each other (someone objects), then should not a current-carrying conductor of any endeavor to pull off, change their geometric dimensions, because it can be regarded as an infinite number of adjacent conductors with parallel currents?
On a system with the currents can produce the force decisively superior to the centrifugal force, the design is to achieve compression despite breaking effort. This will create a gyroscopic energy accumulators fantastic energy.
And just as the design can be reduced, when there is such a problem, if I change the polarity (or direction). The weakening of the mechanical strength of the processing, such as metals - it is an important task. And it is clear that in a uniform magnetic field in magnitude can not only be rotational, but reciprocation.