Tunnel effect. Model synthesis reactor

on 30 August 2012.

Science fiction writers, scientists, futurists create in his works a model of the future. Value they are, in the author's opinion, are only playing with life situations in the light of new achievements. How the problem will be solved, for example, the treatment of various diseases, for example, the food problem, the problem of uncontrolled breeding of humanity, the influence of transport on life, or specifically - how to solve the problem of love and education of children, if you become one of the dominant factors... And, interestingly, the most incredible forecasts made even by non-specialists, a complete ignoramus come true with a large probability, that's amazing.

The author dares to build a model of the synthesis reactor. With high probability, and that will come true.

So how, in the author's opinion, should look like the reactor.

First it needs to be both compact and of any predetermined dimensions. Literally: from the container to the nine-floor house. Moreover, for security purposes, although large reactors will be to demonstrate the best technical parameters, it is preferable to use small reactors.

In the second place, it needs to work continuously, or impulses work to go with very high frequency (let it be kilohertz).

Thirdly, he must not use exotic sources of fields, for example, superconductors.

Fourth, the reactors must be extremely simple.

Fifth, the reactor should preferably be less fonit, to give undesired types of radiation.

 

All modern nuclear reactors do not fit the presented expectations. It would be better to say: none of these. No stellarator or "Tokamaks", plasma neither the focus nor the magnetic bottle with a lot of traffic – none!

 

Suppose that the idea of magnetic confinement is wrong. Let's just say very far from realization, terribly far in these ground conditions.

 

Therefore, it is necessary to go back to the beginning of the maze, look to see if the desired output.

It is established that fusion reactions go at very high temperature. For example, the reaction of tritium with deuterium requires heating to 50 000 000 K.

 

Accelerated to 1 eV charged particles are the particles that heated up to 11 000 K. Then 5 kV would be enough to start a reaction, if you bombard a target. And the reaction is proceeding, but with such a tiny output, that the costs greatly exceed the acceleration effect can be obtained. For this reaction only at 100-150 Kev energy of the incident particle, the cross section of the reaction is acceptable.

 

But when the accelerated nucleus hits the target, it will not only fusion reactions, but a host of others. Ionization – the main trouble. The ionization probability in a hundred million times higher than the probability of a nuclear reaction. For each ionizing event takes about 40 eV. Hundred million, hence the 4 GeV. To obtain, for example, 20 MeV of energy (one act of synthesis) will have to spend 4 GeV useless energy. The difference is 200 times.

 

And logically, it was concluded in the last century that it is necessary to remove the ionization. Already ionized to bombard the target. And as it turned out to be unprofitable – too many empty collisions between the bombarding nuclei and cold electrons and nuclei of the target is followed by two logical steps: heat and electrons of the target nucleus to the energy of the incident particles. The result: the hot plasma of the initial substances (and the target and the projectile are cooked, as they say, in their own juice at the fantastic temperature).

 

The future path is already known. The plasma scatters, it must keep, to create a complex magnetic trap, then the trap closed, there is a lot of instability, the size of the camera is on the rise...

 

Neither laser fusion nor ion bombardment of the targets did not change the situation. The solution is not found. To be more precise to say that the found solution is not a solution to the problem. No free energy!

 

Somewhere in the maze was a passage.

Back to the bombardment of accelerated target nuclei.

You need

a) to increase the energy yield of the reaction. To ensure that the maximum number of particles entered in a nuclear reaction.

b) to reduce the ionization losses.

 

An atom of a target can be viewed as energy barrier for incident charged particles. This threshold braking! Express the particle penetrates the atom, starting from the nucleus – because not all strokes are Central. Electrons come off the electric field, the particles flying from the target atoms, and in the end also slow down the particle be taken away from her for 30-40 eV.

 

This is a known problem of the passage of the particle energy barrier.

 

The fact that the probability of proton (deuteron, Triton) can overcome the energy barrier of the forces of electrical repulsion (0.15 MeV), to bond with another proton to 10-14 m and merge into a new kernel. And this may happen at energies much smaller 150 Kev. But how will this same process (essentially tunneling) if the incident particle "feel" for the target of accelerating field?

The probability of passage through the barrier will increase dramatically.

Then! Behind the barrier must be accelerating field!

Again. Bombarding a target with charged particles. Have some effect (even if it will overcome the Coulomb barrier of the nucleus). The probability of reaction let one hundred millionth. At the same parameters of the incoming particles, but with the accelerating field over a target, the probability of reaction increases many times. 

How to get and use accelerated ions?

Ionize any way the gas and pull out of it ions. Then, after passing through the accelerating stages (no matter what: electrostatic, electromagnetic, bantah cyclotron) is directed at the target. The collision with the target occurs outside of the fields! And all the data, all cross sections of the reactions given for this case. Any other! 

But for particles cares about the field beyond the barrier! The probability that she protoplasm through the barrier is greater, the greater the accelerating potential is in the target-barrier. Therefore, the smaller the distance between the accelerating electrodes, the better. Open a good textbook on physics, ask wave function, the passage of the particle energy barrier (with probability!).

We need to change the conditions of bombardment of the target: it must be accelerating charges the field with a large gradient! And the target must be a field more than in front of it (must be the field gradient).

You can apply for a substrate under the target of negative potential, a positive electrode (mesh or tubular) placed in the vicinity of the target on the verge of a breakdown. To apply the voltage pulse. After passing the grid, the charges begin to accelerate, the target lies in the accelerating potential.

How you can still get an electric field?

In the immediate vicinity of the "working" of the particle beam to allow accelerating a beam of charged relativistic particles (see the Author's article "DC Transformer").

To organize the field gradient can be a difference of shapes and space of the electrodes.

What then will occur, what effects should we expect?

A charged particle when tunneling ceases to "notice" of the electron shell of the target and the field cores. It is a quantum transition. Its charge if missing. If she flew a single atom and not met-nothing to worry about. The size of the atom 10-8 cm, one centimeter of stairs it will meet 100 000 000 atoms of the target. Even in vacuum it is possible to organize 20-30 kV accelerating potential without breakdown and autoemission at distances in centimeters.

The number of particles which entered into the reaction, should increase dramatically. Losses to ionization would be reduced.

And are there any effects, confirming the hypothesis of the author?

The reflection from the barrier, seepage, the refractive index, are tasks that are basic in electron and ion optics. That is, it is checked, it is used in the electronic and proton microscopes.

The most striking thing is that almost, as proposed by the author, experiments have been, and with great results! For a simple setup (bulb, two electrodes, discharge) received samazinajusies discharge and recorded the neutron yield! However, the neutrons arise not from the fusion reaction, and from accelerated to large energies of nuclei. And they were not enough.

The reason for this incomprehensible (then) the acceleration was the fact that during the discharge there is instability, in particular banners. That is, in some places, bit the cord in the course of random processes there was a thinning of the beam, which is then as a process with positive feedback, were picked up by the magnetic field at the place of constriction is sharply increased, and the cord torn. And the gap current according to the laws of self-induction caused a surge of strong electric field. In this field accelerated deuterium and electrons.

 

Thus, an electric field, a target (that you ions and gas molecules of the filler) in the acceleration zone, reaction, rupture of the cord. That is what we should do!

So: the cord discharge must tear ourselves! That is, if the center of the discharge tube to establish a magnetic coil, feeding a pulse of a given frequency, and tear the cord will be in this place and given us a frequency. Rupture of the cord will cause a surge voltage (EMF), acceleration of ions, partly the reaction from the accelerated ions, partly by tunneling. Times small yield of the reaction from one gap, the number of gaps should be large 100 -10 000 times per second. In the area of the gap of the cord of the gradient field is huge.

Argued that it is not the same neutrons, no fusion reaction, not the way you want...That's what a misfortune! There is a reaction, is the neutron yield, the energy...Low energy? So increase the frequency! But not the way you want.... It's hard to please everyone!

 

Should work, because it works.

What was the energy balance? 20 MeV received, spent 4 GeV.

200 times spending more than the effect?

But the energy spent on ionization, can then be disposed! If the reactor is designed to produce heat, it utilized 100% of the energy.

So, the effect of heat of 4.02 GeV, spending 4 GeV. If the worst device, and most of the poor organization of the reaction!

 

As a demonstration device the accelerator can already provide heat. As the heating element it produces more heat than supplied electricity. To increase the number of particles and adjust the power at will. (Better pull your break and discharge an external field with any frequency!).

 

If you extract electrical energy, it turns out not so good. The efficiency of heat engines (turbine plus generator) on the strength of 40%. Therefore, it is necessary to have 10 GeV output (instead of 20 MeV) to close the system, then at least it will work on itself without consumption of energy. Then you need 500 of the acts of synthesis in these parameters. Only 500!

 

But even if you do not manage to get so much as a heating element the plant can operate very efficiently.

(The author would have taken a simple installation: bit the cord in the environment of deuterium, lithium, beryllium, hydrogen, helium (just the mix!) at a voltage of 10-20 kV, tore at the specified location and cord increasing magnetic field with a frequency, what the author and is today more like and monitor energy output. Don't need huge current for bit retraction cord, there is no strict requirements to the density of the particles. To experiment with the composition of the mixture and pressure can be years! And wages goes, the smart reports are written, the results are obvious - that's where happiness could be! And then make Parkinson's law, the staff ballooned to disperse our warm company would be simply impossible).

 

And with the target still can work... In gaseous, liquid or crystalline form should it be? Messbauer, very convincingly proved that when the resonant absorption is not only morozhennoe the structure required, but even negligible speed impact. (Dated lithium, in my opinion, salt, solid?). It may be found in such a thin resonant peak of the energy of the incident particle (and the field gradient and acceleration) that all just gasp! And once the constrictions of the cord there is a strong electric field, may be used as the initiating additives to the basic "broth" and other substances such as beryllium and helium. And in the place of constriction of the cord to place the prototypes. In the bombardment of beryllium with alpha particles will form neutrons, which can initiate other reactions. To add to the mix vitamins other (heavy) substances! Broth so the broth! Soup!

 

The cross section of fusion reaction, and the probability to slip through the energy barrier can not be changed in the accelerating fields!

What is there to think...Spent years of work, billions of funds. There are so many great finds... But no result, the problem is not solved. To replace organic energy failed...

It is necessary to try – it's not worth a lot...

 

And maybe we should not?

Imagine what 60-year history of mankind from the beginning of the search path of synthesis would have gone wrong...

Small accelerators get sufficient energy for consumption in the country. Mastered the land. Products, energy, free time – a lot! There is no war.

Energy saving technologies are not developed.

Wind energy causes chaffing (carminative!).

Helioenergetics sympathize when they faltered, nervously, report that they have not 10% energy output, and 15%! When asked about the price of their installation, they name the price and blush (burn!) shame. The idea that a good beginning can be ditched due to lack of competitiveness depresses them. Allowed to work in space. For how long?

Hydroelectric (finally!) destroyed, the fish can get to traditional spawning grounds – was it the age-old dream! After spawning can afford or dogs to collect fish for food (but fighting off bears!)

Tidal station excite indignation at the spoiling of the landscape.

Geothermal indulgently overlooked – well, of course, people like to do stuff, so no one bothers.

Bacterial biomass burning, worrying about the possible mutations of microorganisms. Get checks.

Oil spills lead to an explosion of indignation throughout the world and to extremely harsh sanctions. Frozen mines, oil derricks and pumping stations. Counts the number of deaths for all years of operation, due to be presented with so many zeros to the mining companies. Excuses and whining don't listen, are not taken into account. Production quotas and minimize expenses allow you to keep stable oil prices. The agony of mankind from a lack of energy (for cars, ladies and gentlemen, just for cars!) extended indefinitely.

 

Anger and just indignation expressed by the citizens of all countries about the blatant exploitation of nuclear power plants some of the (almost bankrupt) firms (the money they took, and the contract must be fulfilled!).

Are the burial sites of nuclear waste. Humanity is stunned! A ocean basin polluted long-lived radioisotopes! Looking for the extreme, but find only scapegoats. Each of them make on the cap.

 

Automotive petrol and diesel is in deep crisis. However, this inert industry, it will exist another hundred years. But there are few willing to pay huge tolls in a powerful car on the streets of the city. And with small cars fees, taxes, penalties for poor engine tuning, Parking, accidents, inconvenience to neighbours for damage to the environment, the need for scrap recycling, with the support of the production of harmful...If punished for Smoking, it is fair to punish the burning of gasoline and diesel fuel, and proportional to the harm!

 

But public electric transport is developing at a frantic pace. Trolleybuses, trams, metro, transport, Maglev, buses, cars, motorcycles, scooters...

 

Raised his head green so brutalized that cover any chemical plants that use at least a little harmful substances. For the electric vehicle they are for! Batteries, mechanical drives, my IDEAL BATTERY ENERGY! For!

 

National self-interests prevail in developed countries. Harmful production is displaced in the peripheral countries. Chemical, refining, enriching, steelmaking enterprises transferred to countries with lower wages and disregard for the environment. Develop institutions, colleges, research laboratories, industry, electronics, all the high-tech and intellectual industries. Parks are being built, restored parks and reserves, cleaned up rivers, improving conditions for fish spawning.

 

The forest area is increasing, deforestation for fuel are prohibited.

 

Frantically, the fantastic growth medicine. Of the essential attribute of life, it turns into an exploratory and experimental industry. Don't know the basics of genetics and immunology is becoming increasingly inappropriate.

 

New priorities - initiation of the backward peoples the benefits of civilization. Progressors from civilized countries rushed to those that need to carry the light and color of the civilization (again, beads, mirrors, rings in noses?). Develop desalination plants, introducing new technologies of processing of soil are suitable and in demand varieties of plants for the region, develop the production, processing, and construction. At the same time trying to conduct a campaign or covertly policy of birth control. No country is going to spend on the development of a foreign economy, then another to feed others ' citizens. No such entry in the budget of any other country!

 

In addition to the big and pure love, and unauthorized sexual acts (inevitably, gentlemen, the inevitable!) "progressors" to them, and the wind blew a cloud of contagion. And much because it is not transmitted sexually.

 

So trying to curb (unsuccessfully!- democracy) movement of masses of people. Norgay can walk even to Kamchatka, but there is nothing to do in the tropics!

 

Absolutely not ready remote geographically and historically, the nation to our diseases and viruses.

 

Many viruses inserted themselves into the chromosomes.

 

Community, perceiving the achievements of civilization, like manna from heaven, that is, as phones, cars, satellites, few noticed the emergence of a new factor. And those who were energy supplier, more, perhaps, would be offended by a new gift from the progress. They lived in peace, not bothering anyone, and here you are prey to reduce the income freeze...

 

So You decide Reader?

There is tunneling? Whether to increase the yield of the reaction if you bring the electrodes at a constant voltage and the same current? Whether it is necessary to place the target in the area of particle acceleration? Mandatory if the field gradient? Whether to use (simulate) break the current in the bit string?

 

You should think about the possibility, the necessity, the inevitability of the construction of the synthesis reactor. Inscrutable, of course, the way...But today in school laboratories are baked in high-temperature superconductors, in the same school labs tomorrow will be the demonstration to do the synthesis. Very bad if without us, and that in fact the beads and mirrors to get us...And the ring in the nose?..

 

Here's a drawn picture, when the Author undertook to model the reactor.

 

Details it's better not to finish... Smart, as they say, enough.

 

Now we wait, when will be fulfilled the prediction.