The design of renewable energy

on 26 August 2012.

The energy crisis is pushing to the problems of energy supply.

     There are widely and commonly used design, powered by renewable sources. But there is also forgotten and once seemed unprofitable sources of energy.

      Whenever we see, we find differences in the levels of certain parameters, it is possible to extract energy. Will it be the difference in the temperature, pressure, altitude, location, even in the manifestation of the effects of time, then there is this possibility. Such deviations from the background can be called fluctuations.

    Most global fluctuations can be considered as a phenomenon of the tides under the action of the moon and under the sun. Modern tidal stations have been constructed in many countries, the frequency of the tides, can not produce energy all the time, does not seem to factor in the ban, found ways around the peaks of income and lack of energy. Use storage batteries, pumped storage pools are created, combined with the existing station power systems, etc. Many countries are already basking in this fire.

Wave power although not widely used, but is being studied, and new construction. Wave - small, compared with the tides, fluctuation. But a lot of waves. And the buoy system, and rafts Cockerell and pezosistemy that convert wave energy into electricity, are already built in many countries, gained experience and are working out a design element.

     Changes in atmospheric pressure once round. Meanwhile, this is a huge, global fluctuation can now afford to create designs that allow to extract energy on a grand scale.

     If you knock up the mercury in the vessel, as is known, the mercury will result not all - will be 760 mm. And 760 mm - is about the level of mercury that rises, falls. Weather change is always accompanied by a change of pressure. Fluctuations in the level of mercury changes the weight of mercury, and it allows you to use the most simple devices (such as weights) to translate these vibrations into mechanical energy. Of course, it concerns the use of liquids. (Drebbelya Engines and Cox, based on this, were built in 16-17 centuries!).

     Imagine a vertical vessel, the upper wall of which is a piston. The vessel is sealed and filled with a gas at a certain pressure. Weight balanced piston gas pressure. By increasing the air pressure piston will move down and compress the gas, with a decrease in atmospheric pressure gas in the vessel will expand and raise the piston. Pressure change of one hundredth of the atmosphere gives strength of 100 kg per square meter of the piston. Although stroke is not very big, but it will make the work, and only the willingness and ability of the experimenter to determine which would be the value of this work by using multiple units (or one, but great). Demand tightness of the system reduces somewhat optimistic to use - a device with a column of mercury and easier and more reliable (that's just the toxicity of mercury make it unattractive).

     But what prevents use other liquids? First they have more speed, that is, when the pressure of 1 mm Hg. Art. in water, for example, and rising to 13 mm. Secondly, with huge, vessel (say, for example, 1 hectare) tens of tons of water will rise and fall with changes in atmospheric pressure and do work in the mechanisms. Thirdly, a day atmospheric pressure jumps to more than 1 mm Hg

      You can make a similar design some changes, allowing not expect the weather, rather, changes in pressure, and by organizing the change. In those places where the winds blow, to organize every minute multiple pressure changes in a region does not pose much difficulty, and not have to spend the energy - wind itself creates negative pressure or suction head through the use of aerodynamic surfaces on the object. But it is not wind turbines in its modern presentation! This barometer unit, instruments due to changes in atmospheric pressure or pressure in a region near the unit.

    Working body, the receiver pressure changes may look like bellows (aneroid), and as an inverted tube with liquid and sealed as Bourdon tube (used in pressure gauges): The change of atmospheric pressure in the work - that's a characteristic feature of such devices.

     But the wind is not enough in some areas. A solar energy so much that simply has nowhere to go. And why not use this energy to extend the gas (heating of the vessel with the gas)? Gas heating by solar energy, we make it to expand in a vessel with a piston, force to do work. Then you can cool the gas, irrigation water vessel. Then again, give him warm from the sun ... How funny it looks, how easy ... But it was so done on the first steam engine! A sealed-heated fuel tanks explode and now here, now there. will extract energy from the sun's heat more efficiently. Vaporized gas to do work in the turbine. The gas then enters the cooler, is a cycle of external cooling, pouring water, blowing, causing condensation of the filler, the pressure drop. The refrigerant is pumped into the evaporator. Loop back to the starting point. And repeat.

      The contrast of temperatures of 20 degrees will give the maximum (ideal) efficiency for normal (317 - 297) / 317 = 0.06 (total 6%!).

     But after a solar still has not figured to charge!

The percentage is small? This is more than a locomotive! A construction itself (a typical refrigerator), designed so thoroughly that it is almost impossible to improve. We can only adapt it to specific conditions.

    If refrigerant (such as Freon) is evaporated in a vessel with blackened walls, if the area of ​​the vessel, illuminated by the Sun, is large enough, you can get and more than 20 degrees, hot, in fact on one square meter of surface accounts for 1.4 kW of solar energy. The contrast between the black sun-warmed surface of the evaporator, which is concealed in a transparent cover for the rays to prevent loss of heat to heat the air, and in the shadows, for the irrigation and condenser can reach 60 degrees. And this is a 20% efficiency

    Now the desert are of interest only as a possible storage of gas or oil. Meanwhile, every day of incident solar energy can greatly exceed that which can be obtained from their bowels.

   In the ocean currents have layers with the contrast of temperatures at 10 degrees. Developed devices to use the energy of water with high efficiency (eg, a OTES). But stocks of energy in the atmosphere is much easier and cheaper to take the land, being attached to the water only as a cooler.

    For an interesting instrument that converts thermal fluctuations is bimetallic plate. Swiss watchmaker P. Droz (1750!) Sozdap drive for hours out of the spring, the outer part of which was made of brass, and the interior of the steel. With increasing temperature, this spring is bent, and with decreasing - unbent. With these mechanical gears multidirectional movement transformed into unidirectional rotation gear. For the day, the temperature can vary by 5-10 degrees (and during the day - or more), and the corresponding movements bimetallic ensure progress with interest the large clock.

      If a magnet is placed on a small ship, it will move to the near pole. Very slow, but very stubborn. There is not only the time of the orientation of the magnet in a magnetic field of the Earth, but the attraction force of magnets. The boat, which has a streamlined shape, will always move faster than the current! Such are the cruel rules of life, I'm sorry, these are the laws of fluid dynamics: the volume of water equal to the volume of the boat has a greater resistance to movement - the form it spreads. What kind of work will make the traveler, it is difficult to say. But in the pond, and in a pool and on the lake and on the river without a boat propeller with a magnet will float to the North hemisphere. (By the way, a great and cheap way to study the effects of forms of resistance: If the same magnet is placed on ships of different forms, it quickly reaches the target one form of which is better. Way, and a great way to study the effect of coatings on the resistance. Lubricants gels, the surface of different materials ... one and the same force, the same characteristic size, shape, and lubricants are different, but the puddle, then one ... testing tank, the source rod, measuring devices, the staff secretary, makeup artist. Give .. mediocrity million, and he will turn the Earth!). The boat will be demolished currents and wind, it will not interfere with the magnetic anomalies, but - to the North!

      It is known that a moving charged particle in a magnetic field begins to move in a circle and radiate. Now with the help of permanent magnets create such a powerful field that even the thermal motion of charges in a medium to make them emit. And if you use superconductors ...

   If we impose a strong magnetic field at a certain small amount of sea water, the ions will be forced to move in a circle and radiate. Plain water will emit, give energy! And to cool naturally. If during or sea waves will always replace the cooling water, the energy source will be virtually inexhaustible (by the way, and the energy flow is converted into heat - from the theory of MHD generators know that 1-2 percent of the ions is sufficient to effectively control the flow of the medium). The magnetic field of the permanent magnet is weakening with time, but you can spend some energy to maintain the magnetic field and then use superconductors, and then capture a greater volume of water, and a lot of energy to extract ... Stocks of heat in the oceans are so large that pinch off from them at least it is not malicious. All the energy is ours!

    And then there are rivers, streams ... Flow uselessly from the heights, and the energy they have not otberesh other ways.


     So, the least-used now fluctuations is the change in pressure and temperature. They are also the most ambitious, planetary. They cover a huge amount of space to infinity(almost) to strengthen the capacity of the units. But they also provide the most energy dissipated, so the unit converters must have large size.