on 25 August 2012.



The ability to control the forces that greatly exceed the forces around us, the ability to influence the substance of them and do the necessary things - probably, and so you can evaluate the progress of mankind.

       Each step in this direction promises a rich perspective, so the analysis and testing of working hypotheses is the problem and an interesting topic for discussion.

The author offers you the subject of the influence of a magnetic field on the matter and some of the effects in magnetic fields.

       Analysis of the hypotheses he has to start with a model, the properties and laws of which are well understood.


  Imagine such a setup. Between the two poles of a permanent magnet is Evacuated camera. This camera is perpendicular to the magnetic field the electron beam injected a certain energy.

      The radius of rotation of the beam in a magnetic field of known value can be determined. The electron beam moves in a circle, therefore, acceleration, and the electrons lose some energy to radiation. Moving charges are directed current which, as you know, generates a magnetic field. That is, we have a closed coil with a current, and at such a turn of a north and south magnetic poles. Coil with a current in a magnetic field must interact with an external magnetic field.

      It is known that if the field is to us, the particles with a positive charge rotate clockwise, and the particles with a negative charge - counterclockwise. But in the first and in the second case, the particles create their field, which is directed against an external field, that is, they weaken the field.

     If a beam of particles is in the uniform field (between the poles), the net force on it from the poles is zero. If the external field is not uniform, it will be a displacement of the beam. Electrons and protons will move in a nonuniform field in a spiral toward the field weakening as diamagnetic. Therefore, the plasma is diamagnetic, it is pushed to the side of the weaker field.

     For the coil of wire with a current of such a state is unstable, it is at the least bias tends to occupy a position where his field is in accordance with the external field and pulled into the region of the strong field. A good analogy of paramagnetic atoms!

   It is known that the magnetic field does not affect the fixed charge. But in the nature of fixed charges is not observed even at zero temperature there is a movement of electrons is that the zero energy level below which fall nature does not allow.

     Check for macro lens revealed no effect of the magnetic field at a fixed charge, perhaps because the development of views on magnetism as an independent entity, making it unnecessary. But in nature there is no substance, no particles that would somehow not react with the magnetic field, and no perfectly stationary particles.

    But day by day increases the value of the fields in the laboratory. So will, of course, a number of new effects, the value of which can not detect them earlier.

     In the non-uniform magnetic field should be observed separation, separation of gas mixtures, as the magnetic properties of different gases. Diamagnetic components will be thrown out of the weaker field, and will be drawn into the paramagnetic region of maximum field. Continuous pumping of gas from these areas may allow separate gases without much energy. Many times to repeat the cycle of separation can be increased concentration of the desired components to the desired value. Components of the mixture can only be paramagnetic or diamagnetic only, and even then their division in the uneven field will be due to differences in magnetic permeability. permeable membrane. The use of such separation in combination with the existing facilities, for example, to obtain oxygen from the air or argon, may allow multiple reduce energy consumption. Intensification of many processes preliminary air mixes with oxygen enrichment can allow significantly reduce the cost of production, to save fuel, reduce the amount of toxic emissions (transportation, heating plants, metallurgical industry).

        In the electrolytes and fluids uneven magnetic field also causes the separation of components.

        The magnetic field can be of such magnitude that will break some of the electrons in orbits. The condition for this is the unevenness of the field, the field change at short distances, a significant amount (field gradient). If the ratio of dia-and para-magnetic breakdown of electrons from atomic shells looks quite doubtful (but not for superconductors that have a similar effect can be significant, perhaps, this phenomenon leads to a loss of superconductivity in high-power fields), in respect of ferromagnets or super magnets such a statement, in my opinion, is not devoid of meaning.

        Indeed, imagine a powerful magnet (or electromagnet) with poles, turned to each other and located at a small distance from each other. Unevenness of the field, for example by the asymmetry of poles: one pole area a hundred times greater than that of the other. Test object is fixed in the maximum field gradient. Effect of the magnetic field distorts the electron shells of atoms attract those shell where the magnetic moments of the electron spins or were uncompensated. Since the atoms are in a lattice or other system determined by the structure of the material, they are unlikely to be able to move, while the outer electron shells quite easily dislodged, deformed under the influence of a powerful magnetic field and, in principle, the electrons are confined to their orbits.

       Even more significant effect emissions can be achieved by pass a current through a prototype in a magnetic field. Field acts not on abstract current, and its carriers, ie electrons. Therefore, it is the electrons will tend to break out of the Explorer shell. But the enormous electric forces associated with the ions, and they will pull them away, the conductor will "leak" will be crossed limit of the mechanical strength of the material (1, p.70). If the field is of considerable magnitude, and the current is large, it is possible to process the materials of an entirely new way - a constant magnetic field. Forces arising from the interaction of pulsed currents, already used in the industry in magnetic pulse treatment of materials (2). But the use of a constant field gives qualitative superiority. First, there will be no dynamic, repetitive loads that cause accelerated aging of structural materials, and secondly, the process can be made arbitrarily long, which will produce molding of complex structures, and thirdly, there will be no destruction of the samples and can be switch to other materials that fundamentally can not be processed by pulse methods because of their fragility.

      Before the material "flows" will interesting phenomenon starts unprecedented electron emission. Why it has not been found so far? Because no one is looking for, because the experience of the impact of magnetic fields on the current-carrying conductor carried out in air or in the insulation of wires lying around. Although the Hall effect (the appearance of transverse emf in a conductor with a current in a magnetic field) is open for a long time, and, in principle, it could be predicted based on this phenomenon.

      What will happen, what phenomena can be observed?

      Electron, looking up from the atom, for example, in the surface layer of the material, may fly out, but then the interaction with the external magnetic field sharply reduced: as we saw in the model, it will describe a circle, to create their own current and slightly out to the region of the weak field . That is, the shell of the atom can be involved in the strong field, and stripped electrons - pushed out of it. Atom after losing an electron acquires an uncompensated positive charge. The surface layer of the sample so positively charged and will prevent the escape of electrons. After some time, equilibrium is established, how many electrons will fly out of the sample, so many will return to him. By electrons fall back to its orbit, again form the atomic magnetic system (or current induced by an external source) and may again be torn field.

       There is some analogy here with the polarization of the substance in an electric field. When you make the substance in the electric field redistribution of charges (if the conductor) or the polarization of the atoms or molecules (if dielectric). Polarization is just involves deformation of shells as a way of implementation. Electron emission begins after reaching a certain value of the electric field (field emission), but can be alleviated by preparing the surface (tip) or heated sample.

        The red-hot coil with a current in a magnetic field, a tremendous increase in the emission current. For many vacuum tubes, this means a return to production after the front of the semiconductors. The combined effect of the thermal emission and magnetic emissions will reach such amount of current that will produce energy conversion commercially or miniaturized lamp inverters to competitive size.

In addition, along with the emission of electrons is observed emission (due to the electrostatic field of the electron) ions the substance, which will intensify the processes of evaporation and diffusion. For molten metals for which current is passed and which are in a strong magnetic field, we can expect a multiple increase these effects.

       Two conductors with parallel currents are attracted to each other, the charge in the transverse direction of the action of their own fields. Hall effect results in that the handler, facing each other, electrons will accumulate, and the far side, so charging positively. Single current-carrying conductor must have the emf between the axis and the periphery of the conductor, and this emf arises from its own permanent magnetic field!

       The axis of the conductor becomes negatively charged. Contractions of the electrons to the axis will lead to additional resistance - because the cross-section of the conductor is reduced. Is it because the cross-section of the conductor is not accompanied by a proportional increase in the maximum current?

       But there is a way, and then the degradation of the conductors (and superconductors): they should be made in the form of flat tires with a plurality of through holes and use a variety of thin wires, separated magnetically permeable medium. The holes are necessary for a free circuit of the magnetic field - otherwise it leads emf Hall in the thickness of the conductor, which introduces additional losses during transportation of energy. Interestingly, it was the partition of the superconductor on the thousands and hundreds of thousands of veins and putting them in some stabilizing material (eg copper) can avoid the phenomenon of degradation. Hypothesis, therefore, indirectly the need for closure of the field lines are not in the main current path can already be considered confirmed. Another confirmation can be considered an increase in the critical field of ultrathin films of superconductors - because of the inevitable impurities should occur zone through which the field lines are not breaking the superconductivity of the whole sample.

        It is known that the electron enters a magnetic field that rotates in a spiral of decreasing radius - a charge moving with acceleration, radiate, lose energy. Thermal electrons in the metal when exposed to a magnetic field, must also radiate, lose energy. The sample, therefore, must be cooled, and the greater the magnetic field, the more intense it will be cool. Temperature of the sample will be reduced as long as the total (heat induced) radiation it is equal to the background radiation environment. We have the same phenomenon will be seen, oddly enough, as "warming" of the sample - in fact on his background radiation will add to and stimulated emission (but, of course, only until such time as the matter will not reset the "extra" energy, and after removal of the magnetic field found that the sample is much colder temperature - approximately looked for records of cooling by adiabatic demagnetization). Plasma, for example, when applied to the magnetic field, it begins to more intense light (this is a fact), but the removal of the magnetic field will convince us that it is really cool. Anyone who wants to increase the brightness and efficiency of fluorescent lamps, it is enough to bring a magnet.

      Conductor, in principle, also be regarded as a plasma. According to the author, will end the radiation pattern in the magnetic field when it becomes superconducting. Only if the electrons have the energy minimum, below which they can not possibly go down. But all the other samples conductors must emit a magnetic field at a temperature other than absolute zero! Electrons must describe a circle in a magnetic field, so they will move with acceleration, and since they are not on the quantum orbits, they must reject the energy.

       The question of whether it is possible in this way to extract energy from the environment. If the sea water, for example, at a temperature of 300 K to create a powerful magnetic field, the ions and electrons, of course, will radiate (synchrotron radiation). But here's the spectrum of this radiation will be enough bass. In principle, therefore, may possess vast stocks of ocean energy. Modern instruments can capture only a very small difference in the radiation of bodies, so even in small fields is possible to observe the phenomenon of the contrast of the sample temperature when applied magnetic field on them.

        Maintaining the temperature of a sample of constant or changing it on your own when a magnetic field can be obtained emitter (maybe the most technically simple) electromagnetic waves. Energy spread of the ions and electrons lead to the fact that the emission spectrum of this radiator will be very broad.

       All the effects that one could be detected under the influence of a magnetic field on the matter, is directly dependent on the size of the field. Meanwhile, the creation of fields 20 ... 30 Tesla is a rather complex issue. Of course, this problem is solvable, and the fields are large quantities, but get them in a few laboratories, such experiments are very expensive, in addition, a record field are usually in very small amounts and for a short time, insufficient for complex experiments.

The author offers a relatively simple and easily implementable scheme for centralizing the field of the magnet to a record high.

        Imagine a horseshoe-shaped magnet. Magnet tightly packed into a superconductor and secured. By one pole superconductor open, wide hole in the superconductor allows magnetic field lines come out freely, from the other pole superconductor almost completely covers the pole, leaving free to leave a small opening lines. Since the magnetic field lines must be closed, all the lines of the open poles should enter at the terminal, which leaves the superconductor only a small hole. Therefore, in the small holes to increase the value of the field as many times, how much open space larger than the area of ​​the pole hole.

        Niobium alloys with germanium, for example, do not lose their superconductivity at fields up to 400 000 Oersted. For some superconductors have not yet created the magnetic field, which would destroy the superconducting state. Today, therefore, it is difficult to say to what values ​​can increase the field in such a system. However, there are some unpleasant moment: II superconductors (that is, those that are partially passed on the field, and which have a record of fields - it's mostly alloys) does not compress the perfect field in a small hole, they are still part of it is displayed, and superconductors that do not allow the magnetic field (mercury, lead, aluminum, etc.) can not provide the record fields. But, be that as it may significantly increase the field, even with type-II superconductors can certainly.

         In electrical circuits, many devices need to get rid of the interaction between the wires, located in close proximity to each other.

Putting current carrying wires with a thin dielectric layer, the superconducting shell gets rid of the magnetic interaction between them however close they are.

      The resistance of the conductor in such a shell (presumably) increases due to the impact of the compressed field. Also change inductance - it is cut, and very much (a present to a ferromagnetic conductor increases its inductance, diamagnetic - reduces. Superconductor is a perfect diamagnetic, so we would expect a significant decrease in inductance). Capacitance change little - at least experiments, conducted by London with superconducting capacitors to confirm this.

        Creating a low-inductance cable is in itself a challenge.

Perhaps closer to the practical use of magnetic energy transfer using superconductors.

        Imagine a closed ring of superconductor tube (torus), in which two coils. A coil supplied AC power frequency, on the other coil power to the load is removed. The static magnetic field and a low frequency does not pass through the superconductor. This means that all of the magnetic field produced by the first coil, without any dispersion was left in the space of a superconducting tube.

      Densely packed with enough coils in the superconductor to the magnetic field lines could not withdraw into okolokatushechnom space can be achieved through the closure of the tube.

        That is, the superconducting magnet core pipe is ideal!

Changes in the magnetic field of low frequency (50 Hz and should be regarded as a low frequency) will be passed over large distances practically without any attenuation and dispersion (not to mention the small distances in transformers and electric machines). Heat loss in coils, of course, the easiest way to avoid, if they were to make a superconducting. As in the case of transmission of electrical energy is needed to have two superconductor (magnetic), one for the input field, for example, from the pole, which at the moment is the northern, the other to bring him back to the coil to the South Pole. However, here the use of superconductors of the first kind is limited to the field, and type II superconductors - a partial penetration of the field into the superconductor, which will cause some losses.

        The need to convert magnetic energy into electrical energy can not be removed. For example, for many physical experiments is required magnetic field (AC or DC), so the magnetic circuit can be directly connected to the unit.

         Remarkable in the application of superconductors to transport magnetic energy is that it does not flow the transport current. The loss of superconductivity at some site will not lead to the collapse of the entire system.

Energy transfer by wire to today's most efficient way to transport energy.

       In transformers and electric motors, as is known, the energy is transferred by a magnetic field in the magnetic circuit. The effectiveness of such a transfer is large enough, but the loss over long distances are huge, not to mention the consumption of materials in this way.

Attempts industrial power transmission of superconductors faced with technical difficulties that the implementation of this method is postponed for an indefinite period.