EXTERNAL FACTOR radioactive decay

on 24 August 2012.


Mastering the humanity of nuclear energy - the most important event of the twentieth century. Perhaps, the end of humanity will be associated with this event.


But, be that as it may, in the process of life was involved enormous energy. Weakening of dependence on fossil fuels, there was a review of the strategic political interests, produced the slope of the economy towards high-tech and intelligent technologies.


Can be divided into stages of human history conquests various empires living space, and you can trace the stages of development of its energy.


The latter, in my opinion, is preferable, because the quality of life is in direct proportion to the energy which has per capita.


The author offers you the topic, the solution of which would affect the use of nuclear energy.


The hypothesis which we have been developing, is:


Process of radioactive decay is caused by external factors.


In fact, these factors can name a few.


Candidates for the role of initiation factors decay fit cosmic particles. Of course, the presence of such particles can not influence the process, but without them the decay passes. Despite the fact that some types of cosmic radiation, and find themselves in deep mines and under water (eg, mesons) the intensity of them so small that it is unlikely to be the triggering factor in the collapse. Join one or two particles in a few seconds rather refutes than proves the initiation of these particles decay.


We know that cosmic rays can trigger the collapse of certain substances. We can, therefore, be concluded that the increase in the flow of light (for example, by placing a test substance on the top of a mountain or on a satellite) would reduce the break. But we can not with 100 percent certainty what kind of particle or photon decay were initiated and can not explain the huge difference in the collapse. That is, the term "cosmic rays" to Detailed. Obviously, the corpuscular factor can not be initiating factor. Radiation is known as nature and the hypothetical is an interesting object for study.


Be the best one can be a factor in the collapse of the neutrino. Per square meter of surface every second should come neutrino flux 7h1014 (Dagaev MM, VM Charugin Astrophysics, MA, Education, 1988, p.48). In the process of the collapse of many radioactive substances were discovered long ago the "loss" of a quantity of energy. This missing energy is carried away, it was suggested that neutrinos. As expected, it is not emitted by nuclei and decay products. If, after the neutrino emission occurred resonant absorption by other nuclei, the process of radioactive decay would depend on the amount of radioactive substance taken. So far as the author knows, not the dependence of the decay rate of the number and geometry of the sample.


Decay products will be absorbed in the thickness of the material. Therefore, only a small surface layer was the object of analysis. Yet it is clear that the emitted particles can be a factor in the initiation of the collapse of neighboring nuclei (no matter what the probability of this event, but it is proportional to the size of the sample and its geometry). One would therefore expect that the size of the sample is a factor to some extent affects the rate of decay.


Uranium, plutonium and thorium - nuclear fuel - divided by absorbing neutrons. These substances both times the rate of the reaction depends on the mass, and the geometry of the samples, because in the course of fission neutrons emitted again, causing further division. It is these secondary neutrons determine the rate of reaction, so it is important not to lose them.


Suppose you have the ability to change the time decay of radioactive elements, if you place them in the area where the flux of neutrinos is much higher than the background. These conditions are in the vicinity of nuclear reactors. If you can find a number of substances, whose decay is initiated by a neutrino, our capabilities for the detection of neutrino radiation significantly enhanced. And the ability to get the energy for this decay offers very attractive prospects. And best of all, if it is a radioactive substance to the degree of change in the rate of decay can be judged on the progress of the reaction. In 1955, Reines and Cowan found that, in the immediate vicinity of the reactor antineutrino proton reaction is = positron neutron. Although this reaction occurs with a very small cross-section, but it's coming! Where possible and the other reaction: a neutron proton electron neutrinos =. And the proton and neutron are in the kernel, hence neutrino really is the catalyst-initiator decomposition reactions.Pontecorvo once suggested a way to detect neutrinos registration argon atoms produced in the interaction of chlorine with neutrinos. Identify several tens of atoms to hundreds of liters of solution, get rid of the influence of cosmic radiation, process the data - all this makes such experiments are rather expensive, and the results are sometimes questionable. Reported reactions from sunlight, for example, is not enough to explain the mechanism of the energy on the sun (or the properties of neutrinos to differ).


At least, we reasonably assume that certain substances undergo radioactive transformation process by neutrinos. Now, these substances are used in neutrino telescopes to detect solar radiation. Whether enough valid assumption that neutrinos affects all matter, that it is a factor of radioactive decay, can be solved only by experience.


If it was not a huge difference in the isotopes during the collapse, then, obviously, and there would be no counter-arguments against the hypothesis of the influence on the process of neutrino decay.


The author can explain such differences during the collapse in this way. Suppose that in some nuclei of the resulting structure, resonantly absorbing neutrinos. We also assume that the probability of creating such structures are different nuclei with different numbers of neutrons and protons. Number of combinations, which may join the nucleons of nuclei with high atomic weight quite diverse. If the probability of an event


(Meetings of neutrinos with resonant structure) is large, hence the decay of the nucleus will occur more rapidly. If the probability of creating a combination of the nucleons in the nucleus this is small enough, and the decay time will be very large. What is the combination and whether the nucleons are to blame for it - this is a complex issue. The fact that many of the radioactive nuclei emitted alpha particles suggests that this combination of nucleons is resonantly absorbing structure. In addition, the nuclei with an even number of protons and neutrons (even-even) are more stable than the even-odd or odd - odd. Can be explained by the fact that many identical structures manage to pass each other neutrinos and, in the end, pereizluchit it in another direction without decay. If helium nuclei (alpha particles) do have a resonance structure of the neutrino absorption, the amount of helium be infringed Maxwellian velocity distribution of the particle to be detected with anomalous energy. Maintenance of helium in strict insulation should reveal inexplicable flow of energy from space.


Such experiences can be done at all with all the stability of the substance in order to identify the resonant structure. During the experiment, you may have to look for and also the resonance temperature, the sample reveals the anomalous properties - allocates more heat than it receives. It is clear why this experience should take stable compounds: we must be sure that the flow of heat is due to radioactive decay.


You can configure thousands of units located close to the station, get the received energy to work on resistive load, that is, to give off heat, add these epoxy circuit and write "sample №" - is bound to increase in the temperature of the sample is fixed in strict thermal insulation. Why, then, we can not with the variety of receivers (different materials) to try to find the resonance structures that absorb cosmic radiation?


Modern tools can allow samples to detect temperature contrast in their strict thermal insulation in ten-thousandths of a degree (or less). Success in this area of ​​research simply inevitable, that is, in my opinion, some samples will be fixed temperature higher than the equilibrium with the environment (background).


 It is known that many substances decompose at a rate that is difficult to explain their decay with the help of the number of neutrinos, which we expect to receive from all cosmic sources. The explanation, in my opinion, is that there may be a chain reaction collapse. That is, the decay products of a single core is still the triggering factor for the collapse of the other.


It is also possible that there are other factors that cause decay.


These factors may be related quantum gravity.


The change in mass of the nuclei and the tremendous speed that they receive during the collapse must be accompanied by the emission of the quantum. The number of such photons in space should be so immense, that may explain any, the fastest decay. As predicted by theory, this should change the quantum metric spaces. Unstable nucleus, hitting such a quantum of the way to experience deformation, elongation, so the nuclear forces at some point will be attenuated as that can cause rapid decay.Loses it with the quantum of their energy or not - is not known. We can assume that the penetrating power of quantum gravity is similar to the penetrating power of neutrinos are some scholars even identify them.


Gravitational quanta emitted by some kernel at the time of the collapse, may be absorbed by the same core and cause it to collapse, in which the photon is radiated again, etc., that is, it can be a catalyst for the collapse, did not disappear in the course of the reaction.


If, indeed, in the course of nuclear reactions like quantum emitted, there is no better place than under the reactor for its registration. Photon flux should be so high that there is hope, and register it with the help of sensors Weber (a massive cylinder coated with a piezoelectric - deformation of the cylinder will cause a surge voltage piezoelectric elements), and other tools.


With a total exposure of photons must change the macro-metric space are manifest anisotropy effects of space in some directions to the properties of space different from those in other directions.


The process of time in terms of gravitational radiation has to change. And this will lead to changes in many physical phenomena. One can only imagine what would be the manifestation of these effects. The author suggests that in some areas will vary, for example, the frequency of light. The most remarkable phenomenon will change the speed of light in different directions from the reactor. Michelson interferometer, such as a nuclear reactor can fix this anisotropy


Gravitational quanta should cause fluctuations in the properties of space. Nothing appears to the author as interesting as the study of such effects. Space depends on the properties of the course of many processes. In the space of a few different properties than ours, will not only be easier to hold the fantastic experiments, but perhaps only certain things are possible, as in the space with altered properties.


Imagine, for example, that (in accordance with accepted theories) really changes the metric space. The distance between some two points in space can change - increase (and if possible the decay of nuclei), but you can decrease as well (and then possibly merge protons or deuterons). The possibility of fusion reactions at low temperatures there is a significant issue for analysis. Recognized because the possible mesonic catalysis fusion when mesons are produced with a proton (or deuteron) original atom, the size of which is much smaller than an atom with an electron, when two such atoms may merge their nuclei at room temperature, because the distance between the corresponding action nuclear forces.


The more likely the synthesis of plasma through which a stream of quantum gravity. Contrary to the Coulomb repulsion forces brought together by quantum effects such reactive core to these distances, when they begin to operate nuclear power. The probability of this process obviously will depend on the gravity of the flux quanta, and the temperature of the plasma. The higher the temperature, the closer the particles come together. This preliminary approximation to complete the merge under the influence of gravitational quantum.


Asked whether such quanta in nature, and why they had not sought the nuclear reactor (the same Weber, for example), can be explained by the uncertainty at all that is related to gravity.


If you recognize that a material body moving with acceleration should emit gravitational waves (photons), the inevitable conclusion that if the enormous accelerations are observed in the decay of particles in the reactor, these rays should be more than enough. It is in the micro processes occur with such acceleration, which can never be achieved in the macrocosm. This should emit gravitational quanta.


Despite the fact that the value of (energy) of this quantum is small, but the vast number of such rays can cause effects on a substance similar to the action of high-energy photon. Such, for example, well-known effect of multiphoton ionization, when a large number of simultaneous exposure to photons, each of which can individually ionize the atom, yet leads to ionization of the atom, to the separation of the electron.


Any macro body is made of atoms and molecules. Gravitational radiation has macrobody miniportsy emissions of these atoms or molecules. Interfere if these waves (photons) are summed if their action, or they do not obey certain laws - is not clear. But we know that macro body behaves like one huge particle: a set of actions a large number of quanta of gravity manifests itself as the effect of one photon (or coherent radiation). All the atoms in a moving macroscopic bodies move collectively with the same acceleration, ie macro body emits monochromatic photon flux, so their effect should be seen astotal.


And just as in the case of neutrinos, we can try to find structures in resonance absorbing gravitational quanta. Checks should be subjected to all the stable substance, solid, gaseous or liquid at different pressures and temperatures. The effect is likely to be manifest in the sample temperature is exceeded over the background. In this case, it is possible to draw energy from the incoming radiation, to get her out of space. For nuclear reactor use of such substances resonance may improve efficiency, increase bleeding from the reactor power.


Proved that neither the temperature nor by magnetic or electric fields do not affect the process of decay. However, the available fields humanity ridiculously small in comparison with the fields in the nucleus. The presence of quantum gravity can be questioned. The ability to initiate a neutrino decay of radioactive substances has not been experimentally confirmed.


But there is one option that is possible to create such a magnitude that it would be a factor of disintegration. This acceleration.


Imagine a beam of energetic ions of radioactive substances, which bombards a certain target. During braking and acceleration forces occur on a par with the strongest interactions in the nucleus (surpassing them!). Enormous inertial forces can not influence the process of decay of unstable nuclei. Shake core, shaking its contents will inevitably lead to the fact that some of its structure, stronger than the surrounding field, fly out of the nucleus. For some substances, such a process can be accompanied by significant release of energy, many times greater than the energy to accelerate. The existence of isomers (ie absolutely identical substances with different periods of decay) indirectly confirms such a hypothesis. Excited nucleus isomer is more volatile than its unexcited counterpart. The excitation energy with about megavolt that is achievable in modern accelerators. Significant acceleration can be obtained in the reverse pattern when the beam of ions bombard any unstable substance.


If indeed unstable nuclei decay occurring during acceleration (and there can be no doubt, because all the high-energy physics is just based on the study of collisions of the accelerated particles with the target, and there is not one particle, no matter which would not underwent any changes during the bombing), such a reactor is, perhaps, the simplest energy supplier. He will engage in the process of energy production huge volumes of radioactive waste (or, at least, get rid of them.)


Does the process of radioactive decay of "self", without the influence of external factors, or whether this factor is necessary, can be checked only during the experiment.


The reactor was charged hundreds of tons of nuclear fuel. During the reaction produces a number of different isotopes, each with its own distinctive type of decay, with its specific next transformations. What is happening in the reactor zone, looks beautiful only in textbooks. But complete clarity about the processes we do not get, maybe never.


         The authors say that in the process of radioactive decay is influenced by external factors. Then multiply this factor will increase its impact at a speed of particles approaching the light (due to the Doppler effect). Relativistic beam of radioactive particles is the simplest nuclear reactor for energy. Radioactive particles accelerated to relativistic velocities, should decay faster!


      And we have, perhaps, never know what kind of factor! Doppler effect is to increase the frequency of meetings with these fast moving particles factor. This field, quantum particles - who knows? Perhaps this is a particle of the time ...


And yet how easy it is to check out!


The process of energy - a requirement of the economy, not science. But for what we're trying to grow wiser to use a large force of nature in their life and spend less of their forces. Construction of both industrial and research reactors and accelerators is a necessity.


Where there is a process of allocation of enormous energy, not only to change the properties of space, resulting in a change in the manifestations of all the laws of physics - there is a door to the future, which, of course, light and beautiful.