Adsorption -separation of a gas mixture

on 24 August 2012.

Adsorption is on the surface of a solid body, placed in a gaseous medium, formed a thin layer of compressed gas, as it sticks to the body. If the body has many small pores (as charcoal) or a fine powder, the amount of adsorbed gas can be very large. (For example, boxen charcoal absorbs 90! Volumes of ammonia, 55 volumes of sulfur dioxide and 9 volumes of oxygen).

 «Pores» and «thin powder» from the definition of lead us to the area of free (reacting) surfaces. «Compressed gas» says that in the shell of the adsorbed gas pressure exceeds the pressure of the environment. The ranks of the particles, which lie on the surface of a rigid body, are in a special state, due to the fact that they on the one hand have no neighbors.

"Time" and "fine powder" from the definition leads us to the area of ​​the free (reactive) surfaces. "Dense Gas" says that in the shell of adsorbed gas pressure exceeds the pressure in the environment.
Rows of particles lying on the surface of a solid are in a special position due to the fact that they are on the one hand do not have neighbors. Every positive electrical charge, which is part of some of the atom, is the source of power lines, and each negative - "flow" of these lines. For the atoms on the surface, some of the lines of force is outside the body, through the gaseous medium. That is formed around the body shell of the power set of such lines.
Gas atoms trapped in this field, polarized, and the dipoles are attracted to the surface. A similar problem "dipole at the wall" is considered in many textbooks.
And even the non-polar molecules will be polarized. The electric field shifts the charges in the molecule (and in the rare-gas atoms, too), it forms a dipole with varying electric moment, the dipole tends to charge on the surface, moving to her stick. After that, the field outside of the body is somewhat weakened - dipole escapes him. But as the dipole of a conductor and neutralize charges (charges and the body and the gas molecules are strongly associated with their internal forces), and the polarizability of the gas is not too high, then the field is shielded slightly, not completely. Therefore, the next atom or molecule is polarized as well as a solid field and adhering dipole field, part of which again is outside the body, the body moves and sticks, but not to the body, and to the previous dipole. This forms a layer that is not monomolecular adhering to the surface of a body of gas.
The farther away from the surface layer of the gas molecules, the weaker it will attract, the easier it is to tear off. Therefore, the outer layers are unstable, they can break down the incoming flow, molecules exchange with the environment, to come to a dynamic equilibrium with the gas temperature.
To a greater or lesser degree of adsorption is common to all agents. To a greater extent in a large area of ​​contact with the gases. But in general, when equal in quality surface adsorption will depend on the "affinity" of the substance to the selected gas.
And the charge on the surface of the body should contribute to the accumulation (adsorption) of gas, and micropores, roughness, projections. And the presence of a magnetic field. After all, any gas or diagrams or paramagnet. So, gas or be attracted to a ferromagnet (because there is always a domain-field) or push off from it (diamagnetic). And if the gas mixture are two paramagnetic gas (such as oxygen and nitrogen), the one of them who has a large magnetic permeability (oxygen) will take the region with the highest value of the field and push out another gas (nitrogen).
Consequently, there are purely magnetic gas adsorption and magnetic separation of gases is possible. Given that created heavy duty permanent magnets can prove it easily. If you use a laboratory record fields (by catching a percent to the detector using cheap magnets), the result will not be expressed in a percent, and in dozens of percent.
In addition, any gas - insulator, and not even so important that the gases, although not significant, but different dielectric constant, as it is important that each and every molecule of gas in an electric field polarized. Ideal dielectric slightly out of the electric field. A real gas is drawn into it, and is much more effective than magnetic fields.
Moreover, gases are polarized differently. Consequently, the electrical separation is much more effective than magnetic.
On the adsorbent surface, as mentioned, are the charges of the fields are closed through the gas. Charges much closed field randomly, the total field is zero. Fields can be directed oppositely, to weaken, to act on the dipole in all directions, haphazard, chaotic.
Imagine that as an adsorbent selected conductor, it filed a high voltage.
Adjacent gas molecules are polarized, and are attracted to the surface. Dipoles neutralize the electric field only partly because they did not discharge the conductor, but the line up so that the charge opposite to the charge of the surface, stick to it, and put out the opposite. That is, their field is directed opposite to the external.
The next layer of molecules attracted again charge opposite to the charge of the plane, and so on until the field created by the sum of the fields induced charge is equal to the external.
This will occur layer by layer, each subsequent layer will communicate through screening with increasingly weak field. Formed a huge cluster of dipoles.
As the gases differ in polarization, the stronger (those with more electric moment) will take the bottom layer adjacent to the surface. Consequently, there will be separation, separation. If the pump slowly gas nearest to the surface layer, it can be used (if necessary) or fold over the side, enriching thus the remaining amount (if the surface layer is not needed).
There are a few things that could improve the quality separations.
We know from theory that the dipoles in a uniform electric field does not move, and only turn (taking the position) according to its own field.
It is also known that the dipoles will be drawn to the area with a large gradient of the field. (When they are pushed, then see the previous paragraph - they still turn around and pull).
It is also known.
-If you submit potential on a conductive surface, the second potential is known to be located at infinity, so the field strength will be low even with very high potential. To increase the intensity of the field, a second surface (second potential). Air makes its way somewhere at 2 kV per millimeter, so no longer apply and reconcile.
-At these field strengths from any tip will leak charge and (or) the ionization of the mixture, which is absolutely not necessary. Consequently, the surface should be (preferably) coated with a thin layer of good insulator, preventing breakdown.
Two-surface plane, located at a small distance, will hinder the process of diffusion. Therefore, instead of planes is better to use a plurality of individual conductors.
The specific design of the author sees that.
(Modeling of dipoles on the surface of the plane).
Established design of parallel thin wires coated with a thin insulating layer. The distance between the wires about a millimeter. The voltage difference between two adjacent conductors of about 2 kV. Between conductors can flow freely from the gas mixture.
The mechanism of action is as follows.
Between two adjacent conductors have the potential difference of 2 kV and at a range of millimeters apart, the field is 2 000 000 V / m This field decreases rapidly with distance, it is certainly not uniform. Therefore, any dipole (rigid or elastic) seeks to maximize the area of ​​the field, that is, between the conductors. From this set of areas evacuated gaseous component. If this component is required, it is used - if not discharged overboard.
Since the area of ​​the fence components are small and very uncomfortable to use, and we can offer a bulk structure.
Volume (space) design can be of a center conductor, around which the two axes are parallel to the conductors on the scale of a millimeter apart. On the conductors to the previous filed a potential difference of 2 kV. That is, for a number of conductors on one axis voltage difference with respect to the center will be a 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 kV. From the central region is extracted gas component.
You can, of course, and get rid of the intermediate conductors. Then the design will find form long conducting tube to the center conductor on the axis. Through the tube is a gas mixture. Between the pipe and the center conductor of the supply voltage is on the verge of breakdown. The central component of the gas is extracted. Inhomogeneity of the field is provided, the drift of the dipoles is guaranteed, the design is simplified.
Simple comb attract after electrification of paper or a few grams of wool. There should be no doubt that it attracts and gases. Glass ball Gericke, he electrified by rubbing hair or hands, to give such effect that we either forget or do not know and want. In dry weather, and synthetic gowns stick, which is not necessary. And the hair stand up before a storm. And Elmo lights appear on the trees. And the air before a thunderstorm unbearably heavy.
There is, there elektroadsorbtsiya.
How many times, holding his hand to his old TV screen, the author felt seal. And the same goes for the presentation to the hands of a high-voltage cable. It is strange that sometimes kinescope "no answer." Most likely, the humidity has a great influence on the adsorption envelope (or need considerable time to create adsorption shell or glass screen so quickly acquires a charge).
Enrichment of air with oxygen will enable to improve the combustion process.
And to have a compact plant for enrichment (or depletion) of air oxygen it would be desirable not only in hospitals but also in the home.