SYMBIOSIS - a survival factor

on 24 August 2012.


SYMBIOSIS - a survival factor

Choosing between the possibility of contracting a severe cholera or have had a less dangerous or even a safe form of cholera, many (vse!) prefer the latter.
Ability to recover easily - it is implemented in the system of immunization. Moreover, modern methods can even prevent the disease itself. Instead of weakened microorganisms, often used for immunization killed microorganisms or even some of their proteins. The body, learning to recognize these proteins, then, upon the living virulent microorganism rapidly destroys it. However, only live attenuated microorganisms provide strong immunity.
 Fundamentally there is another way.
Arrival neboleznetvornymi resistant organisms is the best way to deal with the disease.
Remember, the first who offered to treat syphilis, malaria, received the Nobel Prize for it.
It is interesting that people who frequently take antibiotics unnecessarily, get sick more often than others, and the spectrum of disease is directly proportional to the degree of "purification" of microorganisms.
Has only recently become clear need for settlement after taking antibiotics gastrointestinal beneficial bacteria were produced strains of some species (kolibaktrin, laktobaktrin, bifumbaktrin etc.). But this is only one of the systems of the body! And the skin, and blood, and internal organs, which can live in symbiosis with some strain, organize delivery of necessary proteins and vitamins, in exchange for any enzyme?
Among the microorganisms that scare humanity than a century (plague, cholera, syphilis, smallpox, etc.) you can find (or create) such strains, which cause damage to the body is very mild or no ill effects.
We are witnessing epidemics of influenza and cholera. What is interesting, the flu, for example, is not going to attack all its forms at the same time ("
Hong Kong
", "Spanish", etc.), and comes to any one unit. The same applies to cholera. And always there are some differences both in the micro-organisms, and in the manifestations of the disease: there are more and less dangerous forms. But one species can not tolerate the other!
Doctors say that many diseases have become less dangerous, do not cause such terrible consequences, as in the past, better tolerated and sometimes even pass unnoticed. There are, of course, a variety of explanations for this. For example, according to one version, all those who did not suffer the disease, has died, and survived only by those who could overcome the disease, there was a selection of heritable traits. According to another version, the microorganisms have become less virulent, the selection came at them with our help: in cases of serious illness by powerful medications that destroy particularly dangerous strains. It seems that in our century, the main path. Be that as it may, the general direction, if the trend in the future is encouraging.
Suppose that can find or create this kind of ex pathogens that would be completely devoid of the ability to cause harm to the human body could live in symbiosis with it. This strain would take in a host that niche claimed by his rude and wild relatives, he did not allow them to penetrate into its "territory." Moreover, we would give him greater protection and make it more intolerant of "wild" strains.
Imagine such an ideal case.
-The human body does not contain any bacteria. Given that many species of microorganisms long live in symbiosis with the host, supplying him with some of the vitamins and proteins participating in the process of digestion, it is possible to make a definite conclusion: we do cleansing unprofitable. We can no longer live without them, without losing some of the qualities of health.
-Organism lives in symbiosis with a huge number of micro-organisms (in the ideal case we can say with all kinds of living on Earth.) All these organisms are in decent form, brushed, washed and perform its function, perfecting his bread honestly. They were given the opportunity to grow and reproduce, but within limits. Given that the mutation of any kind are inevitable, which may lead to the emergence of pathogenic species, control of deviations created: any undesired homeostasis punished destroying vermin population.
-Organism lives in symbiosis with a limited number of microorganisms. He regularly attacked the "wild", whose relatives are not registered in the territory, which causes disease or misalignment of the various functions of the body. Suppressed disease taking powerful drugs that destroy the entire population of the polls. Settled on the site of the massacre species that are resistant to drugs, but very bad going on symbiotic coexistence with the host organism. It makes use even more powerful tools for their destruction, and they destroy the organism that makes use supportive therapy, highly directional search for drugs to kill now another species of microorganisms, these drugs are always bad examined and have been tested for decades, which implies that the following destruction of the body, which requires the use of maintenance therapy ... So megillah can continue indefinitely.
The first option is certainly not acceptable. Sterile people do not live long lives for them - this continuous torture.
The third option is present, with all its kinky and deviations, kinks in the field and a desire to solve the problem of one disease a single drug, because the time to talk with gonorrhea somehow remains.
The second option is a dream of the future.
What should be the relationship between the different types of microorganisms, as it has to change the individual qualities of the host, which will be manifested symbiosis - are the main issues to be addressed in this regard.
Do not get sick or hurt in a very easy manner - a requirement of the person must meet the conglomerates microorganisms applying for settlement. The price that the person is willing to pay for it, in fact, very small. No decreases physiological capacity of the body! Any changes in appearance! No unpleasant odors! There are no restrictions in the food!
Let us imagine for a moment that nature had once made a choice-experiment and stopped on one type of microorganisms, allowed them to colonize the host organism. The main objective of this type - to destroy any other species. For this host organism provides them the territory, the power, the ability to improve, takes on the need to maintain the temperature within range, and the maintenance of salt and acid balance. In the body, they are provided with special places, where, if necessary (eg in case of an attack by another strain) will be activated by special enzymes reproduction of these organisms. We also assume that this kind of well-trained, that is, it can be sent to a well-defined strain, while ignoring others. Apparently, nature has placed a factory for the production of these cells in many parts of the body to respond quickly to external intrusion. Does not this remind lymphocytic system of the body?
But almost similar system is in plants! For example, nitrogen-fixing root nodule bacteria live in nodules, thickening of the roots of peas, beans, soy, etc.
Here there is a very interesting question. Became whether these cells have already produced by the host organism, or whether they were independent beings?
 Simply put, what are the genes? If these cells continue simbiotirovat only with the owner, they are genetically different from him, or like a virus vshivshiysya into the host chromosome, are only part of our genes. If they become part of the body, they are completely identical to the chromosomes of the host machine. Then, indeed, any of the body's cells can reproduce (replicate) the organism. Do all cells in the body have identical chromosomes of?
If the chromosomes of cells differs from that of at least one species of animal, it will be a stunning revelation. And if the nodule bacteria identical genes (at least partially!) Host plant, it will be no less startling discovery. After all, creating a breeding ground in the nodules, the plants are exposed to a variety of microorganisms, so we must assume that there may be two ways to maintain the right amount simbiotikov:
a) to make their own plant,
b) produce a substance into the medium, disastrous for other species (by the way, do not look for it in the nodules of new tools to destroy microorganisms? Will not these antibiotics are especially effective in certain diseases?).
It is possible that these methods are implemented together.
Extremely interesting is the experience R.Guda transplants for children with congenital absence of lymphocytes and bone marrow cells from another person. As it turned out, this operation can be quite successful! That is, cells that are genetically different from the host, can live, reproduce and perform specified functions! (
Wilson, D. Body and antibody, "Mir", Moscow
, p.172). Extensive experience on a variety of transplant organs also reinforced the principle of the coexistence of genetically different in the body parts.
So:
-In the host organism is a strain of microorganisms exist that all his forces fighting with other species (call them "aggressors)" for the territory (this, of course, is a fact.)
-The body is at the symbiosis with these "protectors" to the extent that sew their DNA into their genetic program, that is, duplicates them and promotes their survival, care for them, supplying them with nutrients, recycles waste and otherwise protect them.
Lymphocytes are well-trained, that is, they are well able to understand the command "Fetch", but only when the micro-organisms "aggressors" are close enough to understand them, read them as enemies. This usually occurs only when first experience and a must-win lymphocyte - if it eats "aggressor", then simply do not have time to lymphocyte transfer information about the enemy. And therefore have to weaken or kill microorganisms that had lymphocyte taste the joy of victory. Antibodies are allocated, usually only for a certain type (strain) familiar "aggressors." It is on this whole system is based immunization.
Cells may become the enemies of its own host, if in any way organized mistake in recognizing the host cell. But it is this error and made in the case of viral infection! Powerful antigen on the cell surface (for example, the balance of the viral envelope), compels us to consider a large area cells as antigen. Therefore, the reaction begins the destruction of the host cells: a site with the antigen-reading undergone so great that find it in their own body is very easy. And even if it is not already in the other cells of the antigen, but a similar plot and declared an enemy to be destroyed. And that is our helplessness before AIDS. But it also follows and the way to combat the disease: active immune suppression with simultaneous treatment of opportunistic diseases. Response of the body to the point of transfer of infection to disease is inadequate, excessive massaging sverhimmunna. It is an allergy, and it should be treated as an allergy. Treatment can be done and how to suppress responses to viral proteins. So microdoses allergen achieve habituation of the organism to which a substance and withdrawal reactions allergic (hypersensitivity). From the fact that this occurred at his oversensitivity same proteins after introduction of the virus, the subject matter does not change - an autoimmune reaction should be suppressed and corrected.
Thus, we can provide such methods of fighting diseases.
1). Excretion of microbial strains, which would not cause harmful effects, and settling them in the period of the disease caused by "wild" strains of the organism. During the competition, they will supersede the "wild" strains.
2). Active "education" lymphocytes, improving them, artificial selection of them in order to launch the most effective types, elimination of unpromising clones of lymphocytes, the body re-colonization found effective against certain diseases, species. This path seems quite promising and promising.
So far, lymphocytes were seen as something given forever, unchanging, to study their general properties and reactions. Between individual differences in disease progression suggest that cells are qualitatively different even from close friends. Lymphocyte response differ even within one and the same individual over time!
One group, which is owned by the immune system, is limited in its ability to constantly changing face of the onslaught of hordes outside aggressors. Reproduction system cells behind the requirements of the environment, it is a relic, albeit a working effectively.
We know that the gastrointestinal tract is populated by a host of microorganisms. Sometimes this conglomerate is harmful, but more often it is simply necessary organism lives in symbiosis with it. Lymphocytes do not struggle with these organisms (and can not fight.)
 Only in contact with microorganisms in the blood starts lymphocytic system, shaky-rolls, but it destroys microorganisms unpretentious. Only slightly different from the aggressor antiquated simplicity (malaria, with its stages of transformation, syphilis, tuberculosis, etc.), the system fails to work, it shows the complete impotence. In the blood of any person may be found and influenza, herpes, cancer and micro-organisms, which for some reason had not been read as enemies. What do they do in the body, God knows. Dart, destroy diseased cells, somewhere copied, but the harm from them seems to be no. But only up to a point! Each has penetrated into the body of the form is a favorite target and his zapuskaniya factor activity. For hepatitis B virus, for example, the cells of the liver, not simple, and the weak, for the influenza virus are cells subjected to hypothermia (gipoteza!). Is it because people are more likely to have weakened the cells to look for aggressors as a target for attack? Is it because even their own lymphocytes seek to destroy liver cells as a host, if the liver podtravlena poisons (alcohol, for example), or injured, or infected with hepatitis B virus?
On the surface of damaged cells, presumably, change potentials, the very structure of the surface, which allows the aggressor to get inside. While many of these cells, it starts an avalanche multiplication of the aggressors.
Even so, in my opinion, not scary! Damaged or diseased cells must be destroyed. As long as it does not make cells for whatever reason, then let them do other microorganisms. The trouble is that they do not utilize the diseased cells as clean as lymphocytes secrete various toxins that kill healthy cells in series. But in fact this may not be the case if a thorough selection of strains: You can withdraw such species, which do not emit harmful to the process of life to the body.
Thus, an organization with a lot of symbiotic microorganisms is a necessity, a survival factor.
Of course, with severe diseases, or diseases that threaten complications today antibiotics is the best (if not the only) way of treatment. Demand the abolition of antibiotics may not only very loving people individual.
Millions of people owe their lives to Fleming. And many people know about it at all, how many people can express our gratitude to him and his memory? ..