COSMOLOGICAL FACTOR - ANTI-GRAVITATION

on 23 August 2012.


(ABOUT BASIC POSSIBILITY OF CHANGE OF FORCES OF INTERACTION BETWEEN BODIES AT THE EXPENSE OF INTERNAL ENERGY)

Creation of physical models and their check on durability the known facts can promote our advance forward in understanding of some problems which demand a little bigger attention from our party, than still for them was allocated.

Gravitation and inertia problems, according to the author, are the most interesting subjects for the analysis.

Let's consider body movement under the influence of gravitation round Earth with circular speed (spaceship). On this body by means of a spring two skilled objects, one at the rate of the movement, the second to back orbital movement scatter. Skilled objects of equal masses - M (t), are identical also their speeds concerning the ship. Bodies are in capacity and move on the directing.

Let's calculate forces of pressure which will render bodies on capacity.

    

The body flying back, has orbital speed

       V (1) = V-V (c),

 where V (c) - speed of a body concerning the ship;

 V-speed of the ship concerning Earth.

The body flying at the rate, has orbital speed

V (2) =V+V (c).

Then the first body puts pressure

F(1)=М(т)V2(1)/Rз-GМ(т)M/Rз2

- the direction of total force down, to Earth center, as speed now less circular,

G-gravitational constant,

M - mass of Earth;

             Rз - distance to the center of gravity (orbit radius).

     Then the second body will put pressure:

              F(2)=М(т)V2(2)/Rз-GМ(т)/Rз2  - the force direction from Earth center as speed is more the circular.

    Now we summarize results for this system, having considered that

 (V-V(c))2/Rз+(V+V(c))2/Rз=

=V2/Rз-2VV(с)/Rз+V2(с)/Rз+V2/Rз+2VV(с)/Rз+V2(с)/Rз=

=2(V2 +V(c)2)/Rз

Therefore we have:

F(1)+F(2)=2М(т)(V2+V2(c))/R -2GМ(т)M/Rз2

                

 Let's write down a formula so:

F(1)+F(2)= 2M(т)V2/Rз- 2GM(т)M/Rз2+2M(т)V2(c)/Rз

    The first two composed in the right member of equation give equality of gravitational and inertial forces till body disintegration on two components, and the third composed speaks about additional force, which appears, when these bodies started to scatter with a speed of V (c) concerning the center of masses.

     Once again conclusion: two scattering bodies in the closed system Earth - the ship will drag the ship on higher orbit.

Speeds of both parts concerning the ship are identical, but inertial force depends on a square of full speed of bodies concerning Earth. Therefore also a resultant force for two bodies is not equal to zero.

     It is made not very well as trial bodies move (are flied they or scatter). Absolutely no matter, a constant at them speed or a variable (bodies can be fastened by a spring and make fluctuations), but that inevitably there is an additional force which affects system (bodies on a condition is important continue to make system and influence it) whether.Движется the car, whether the plane or the rocket flies, whether the molecule in a vessel flies, but reduction of weight of a moving body always should be observed.

Circular speed can be equal to zero, but in the presence of internal movements in system (and for gas, liquid or a firm body it is equivalent to existence of thermal movement of molecules), all the same we will receive an inequality of weight and gravitational force. Any moving on Earth surface the body reduces the weight (reduces pressure upon a support), and it is absolutely unimportant, this body moves to what party if not to consider also rotation of Earth which does a little unequal the movement directions.

If in terrestrial conditions of force are small at small speeds of bodies, in the conditions of a centrifuge they are rather great to cause notable effects. Obligation radial both gravitational, and inertial forces is an indispensable condition - then there is an unevenness of fields and possibility of manifestation of effect of reduction of weight. That is, two, for example, vibrating masses placed in a centrifuge, should put pressure upon the scales, differing from what will be rendered by two not vibrating weights in the same centrifuge.

Let's analyse possible ways of obtaining big speeds of bodies in the closed volumes:

- Fluctuations of the bodies fastened by a spring. Speeds are small, the effect is insignificant.

- Explosion in the chamber. Speeds are comparable with orbital, but masses are small, the effect is insignificant and short time lasts.

- Rotation of masses. At any moment at body rotation in an orbit one part of a body moves with the speed exceeding circular, other part of a body the circular moves with a speed less. Masses are great, but speeds are small in comparison with the orbital. There is a basic possibility of use of arising effect for transfer of the satellite to higher orbit. As a result of transition to other orbit there will be a rotation delay. It is possible to consider this way already enough studied and confirmed. It is known that the Moon brakes daily rotation of Earth and as a result it keeps away from Earth [1].

 - Gas is a movement of bodies in the closed system. However it is necessary to understand - whether all degrees of freedom, whether everything the directions of movement of molecules will render the same effect. At a course and back is it is already analysed, perpendicular to movement in the "horizontal" plane - the same effect, "up" and "down" - absence of effect. Only 2/3 masses thus "work". Speeds even at room temperature space (for example, for hydrogen of 1800 m/s), masses - almost unlimited, the effect is considerable. As a result of transfer of the satellite to higher orbit gas will be cooled. Amazes nobody that when falling body from some height there is an increase of its temperature. But anybody still did not measure, whether body temperature if it to lift on the same height goes down.

- Plasma. It is possible to store and accumulate plasma round space object at the expense of space radiation, having created a simple magnetic trap (coil), having grasped tens of thousands of kilometers of space as working volume and, thereby, having increased working weight to hundreds and thousand kgs. The expected effect is enormous.

- Use of energy of division of nuclear fuel and radioactive disintegration. In spite of the fact that the mass of splinters is in unit of time small, but speeds are very great, and, at least, for a nuclear reactor it is possible to receive considerable draft.

- Accumulation of thermal energy in a firm body or liquid. Speeds are small, but possibility of use of big masses and concentration of considerable energy do this way rather perspective. It is necessary to consider that in a crystal lattice of a firm body atoms (or molecules) only make fluctuations about position of balance, that is only the amplitude of speed will be equal to average speed of thermal movement, and values of speed for each molecule will periodically change from zero to the maximum. The mass of a molecule will play large role as at the same temperature speed (and the effect) will be more for easy elements.

- Use of accelerators of the charged particles. Obtaining sublight speeds that will allow to use small masses is possible; besides, management of draft on time of reaction is minimum. The expected effect is considerable.

One of hypotheses on a subject: dumping from an orbit of two Russian satellites with nuclear reactors onboard.

Temperature lifting - turning on of the reactor (the analysis is carried out by thermal efficiency) causes emergence of off-design force which changes both a trajectory, and ship orientation. Off-design, unrecorded draft from the reactor as a thermal element, for the operator it is equivalent to the order on turning on of stabilizing engines (short-term) that then again will cause dissonance in navigation system (misunderstanding of sources of draft); at present level it will inevitably lead to satellite dumping from an orbit (or leaving into higher orbit) and to its authorized destruction.

      Numerous measurements of weight of a body and attempt to find dependence of weight on temperature terminated unsuccessfully.

      Let's estimate a possible difference in weight when heating one kg of substance, suppose, hydrogen, on hundred degrees.

      The weight of gas is defined by the sum of action of all molecules of busy volume. Cannot be and speeches about neglect a trajectory curvature under the influence of gravitation of horizontally moving molecules. As free run is small, but horizontally moving particle has a vertical component of speed which will transfer pressure upon a vessel bottom. The curvature of a trajectory of subjects is less, than it is more speed of a particle. The more it will render speed of a particle, the smaller pressure on a vessel bottom. At circular speed the particle does not put pressure upon a vessel bottom. If the particle has speed more circular, such particle will put pressure not upon a bottom, and on a vessel cover because in terrestrial coordinates it has also a vertical component of speed (a horizontal surface it not so ideally an equal surface, and a sphere surface therefore any vector lying on an ideal straight line or on a curve others, than circular, radius, will have a vertical component at a projection it on concentric circles on a vertical axis, that is on the radial direction, after all exactly it is so necessary to project in such coordinates).

From three possible directions of movement in a gravitational field one vertical, and two horizontal. The curvature of a trajectory will occur at the horizontal directions, as well as change of weight of these particles at the expense of inertial forces. The vertical direction ("up" and "down") does not influence weight (that is the increase for flying "down" is equal in an impulse of impulse loss for flying "up").

Let's accept that the first weighing we make at 0 K and the weight appeared equal 1 kg, more precisely, 9,81 Newton. The second weighing we will make at 273 K, the third at 373 K, to define true mass of a sample on Earth now the author considers possible and real only at 0 To and at zero inertial acceleration that at present it is impracticable. But so far as the inertial component from rotation of Earth is (allegedly) identical to three weighings, at difference calculation in weight it will be destroyed.

F=1/3Mg+2/3 M(g-V2/Rз),

     where    V2 = 3kT/m=3RT/μ

     then     F=M(g-2kT/mRз)   or   F=M(g-2RT/μ Rз),

     where V- speed of particles; Rз - Earth radius; M - mass of the taken volume of gas; m - mass of a molecule of gas; k  - constant Boltsmana; μ - molecular weight; R-  universal gas constant.

F=9,81-2х8,31х273/(6 380 000х0,002)=9,46 Newton, weighing at 273 К

F=9,81-2х8,31х373/(6 380 000х0,002)=9,32 Newton, weighing at 373 К

 Difference 0,14 Newton.

Such difference in weight should register (if somebody sometime weighed such amount of hydrogen in addition also in vacuum to clean errors from vessel expansion, after all the volume of such amount of hydrogen under normal entry conditions will occupy 11 cubic meters). According to the author, anybody did not carry out such measurements.

           It is very interesting to analyse also weight reduction at body rotation in mass of 1 kg on an ultracentrifuge with a vertical axis of rotation at frequency of turns 104 it is rad/sec.  with for a ring in radius of 0,1 m. Speeds of all parts of a ring are horizontal, rather great, therefore the effect should take place.

 

E=JW2/2=mW2r2/2,  F=2Е/Rз=2mW2r2/2Rз,                       

F=1х(104)2х(0,1)2/6380000=0,15 Newton,

where J-inertia moment; W- angular speed; r- ring radius; R- Earth radius.

    Scales should show a difference in weight about fifteen grams! And it at a vibrating ultracentrifuge when the error in measurements will exceed admissible for scales. Besides, experience is necessary for carrying out in vacuum to avoid emergence of aerodynamic effects. Considering that ultracentrifuges are in individual laboratories, and in the majority of laboratories 10 times less (therefore, on two orders less expected effect), it is possible to conclude achievable speeds of rotation that similar measurements or were carried out incorrectly or were not carried out at all.

       Weighing of firm bodies at change of temperature gives, obviously, a smaller difference. But firm bodies show us possibility to lift temperature without any protective equipment (cylinders, a magnetic field). It is possible to lift plasma temperature much above, but how many it will cost?

     Let's estimate draft of reactors on the Russian satellites. Introduction data:

 let the mass of the reactor - M (R) - about a ton, temperature working 1000 K, molecular mass (average) 0,04 kg, then effect in the form of draft of the ship will be:

  F=2RTМ(р)/( μ м Rз),

         F=2х8,31х1000х1000/(0,04х6 380 000)=65 Newton

 Not accounting of curvature of Earth, ignoring of heterogeneity of a gravitational field do not allow to predict in any way effect theoretically. If to take as a basis a rectilinear gravitational field, then it is not considered neither influence of speed of a particle on weight, nor influence of a field on a particle trajectory, existence of some speed limit of a particle in a radial field of Earth when the weight of this particle is equal to zero then the effect does not come to light.

     All classical conclusions are made for a homogeneous gravitational field, they are ideally suited to inertial acceleration at rectilinear and ravnouskorenny movement - at such movement there is neither speed of an ubeganiye, nor effect of reduction of weight at body movement. Curvature gravitational (or inertial) fields becomes important at an assessment, for example, distributions of molecules in such field.

Specification of a classical barometric formula taking into account sphericity of Earth is necessary. The author offers such ratio for distribution of molecules in a gravitational field::

    N=N(0)e-mah/kT 

  where а=g-2V2/(3Rз)- it is the sum of accelerations (gravitational + inertial) taking into account that the molecules having horizontal components of speed (and them 2/3 from total), put pressure upon a vessel bottom depending on size of a projection of speed upon a horizontal and curvature of a gravitational field.

 

Having considered that V2=3kT/m, we receive   a=g-2/3(3kT/mRз)=

=g-2kT/mRз,

     k- constant Boltsmana;

          Т- absolute temperature;

          m- mass of a molecule;

  N-  concentration of the particles being at temperature of T at level of h;

      N(0) - concentration of particles at the level taken for the zero;

          V- speed of a particle;

          h- height over zero level;

          Rз- distance to the center of gravity.

      At achievement of some temperature concentration of particles at any level, at any height will be same (as well as in zero gravity). It is the first characteristic temperature (analog of the first space speed) for particles of warm gas. At excess of this temperature the increase in concentration of particles at higher levels in comparison with the bottom will be observed. Pressure upon the top surface then will be more than on bottom!

The condition of withdrawal from a field of gravitation is defined from equality of gravitational energy of all weight of gas and kinetic energy of horizontally moving molecules (2/3 masses). It is the second characteristic temperature (analog of the second space speed).

    MgRз-2/3MV2/2=MgRз-2/3(3kT/m)M/2 = MgRз -MkT/m= 0,

     gRз=kT/m

   Joint action of gravitation and inertia in terrestrial conditions leads to that the body is affected by some total acceleration which is not so equal to acceleration of a free fall. Certainly, the additive is so insignificant that at normal temperatures for gas and the more so a firm body, it it is the heaviest

define, but, nevertheless, it is.

Let's consider a formula for definition of the period of fluctuations of a mathematical pendulum - many experiments are based on measurement of the period of free fluctuations, and many conclusions are received from the analysis of this system (3, page 50)

 T=2*pi*(LMgrav./GMiner)1/2

 

 where Mгр - gravitational weight; Miner - inertial weight; L-length of a pendulum; g-acceleration of a free fall, Pi=3,14

  Acceleration of a free fall is defined

 here not for this sample, and for any skilled body, and it will differ from the true. Therefore also use of a similar pendulum for any measurements is inexpedient. Unfortunately, this way also was used by the majority of experimenters for clarification of interrelation between inertia and gravitation.

V. Braginsky's experiences (2, page 106) raise doubts because it is necessary to define mass of experimental samples only at the temperature which is most approached to 0 K.Napomnim as installation looked. On a yoke hanging on the thinnest thread, were established against each other гирьки from aluminum and platinum. If гирьки on a miscellaneous reacted to an attraction of massive bodies (in particular the Sun), the yoke would change the situation. It it was not revealed. The reason just also consists that for experience undertook small weights which masses were defined by a weighing way at room temperature, that is it is incorrect. For experience undertook small weights different masses, but one weight!

                     From everything told some conclusions follow:

 - All experiences which are led without the analysis of mass of samples and standards at the temperature close to 0 To, are considered incorrect (Braginsky-Dikke experiences).

- For a macrobody consisting of a set of atoms, at gravitational interaction with other body it is necessary to make the account not only speeds of the center of masses, but speeds of thermal movement of separate atoms, and also rotations round an axis.

 - Acceleration of a free fall a miscellaneous for chemically various ph. Acceleration of a free fall a miscellaneous for the same body at different temperatures.

  - The substance, which weight it is measured in a "cold" condition, behaves in a gravitational field after temperature increase as a body bigger (in comparison with settlement) inert weight. Speeds of movement of "hot" stars (for example, speeds of rotation of stars round the Galaxy center) will differ from speed of movement "cold" (that, by the way, and is observed).

  - Force of inertia decreases in inverse proportion to distance between gravitiruyushchy bodies, and force of gravitation decreases back to a distance square. Therefore at some distances between bodies or some temperatures of substance force of inertia can surpass force of gravitation. That factor of pushing apart between stars and galaxies which came up in Einstein's formulas as some cosmological factor, it is possible to explain big fading of forces of gravitation with distance in comparison with forces of inertia. There is enough only forces of inertia (which, it appears, is function of thermal energy) at emergence of two stars to cause their running start at rather big distances between them.

   - It is possible to create now draft for transfer of the satellite to higher orbit if to have onboard volume of light gas at big temperature.

                         Possible experiences for confirmation of effects:

  - weighing of bodies before heating (to use the greatest possible temperatures and masses, and the skilled object is preferable for taking from the beginning of the table of Mendeleyev); to weigh in vacuum;

   - measurement of acceleration of a free fall for the body which has been heated up to different temperatures;

   - measurement of total force of interaction between two bodies at their various temperatures (by means of, for example, krutilny scales);

     - measurement of a difference of temperature at change of provision of weight of gas in a gravitational field or in an inertial radial field (in a centrifuge).

The used literature:

 1. Klimishin I. A., Elementary astronomy. - M: Science, 1991, page 97.

 2. Klimishin I. A., Relativistic astronomy. - M: Science, 1989, page 106, 288.

 3. Spiridonov O. P., Fundamental physical constants. - M: The higher school, 1991. page 238.

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